Each of the thirteen federal courts of appeal have their own test for evaluating whether a likelihood of confusion exists between two trademarks. Although the tests are not identical, most of them are substantially similar and use many of the same factors. And, the factors are non-exclusive.
The Eighth Circuit includes the following jurisdictions:
The Eighth Circuit considers the Six Squirtco Factors when considering likelihood of confusion cases:
Lovely Skin, Inc. v. Ishtar Skin Care Products, LLC, 745 F.3d 877, 887-89 (8th Cir. 2014); SquirtCo v. Seven-Up Co., 628 F.2d 1086, 1091 (8th Cir. 1980).
Within the Eighth Circuit, Ms. Harper has been retained for three cases filed within: District of Minnesota, District of Nebraska, and the Western District of Missouri.
Retained by more than 115 law firms, Ms. Harper is courtroom proven in virtually every circuit along with JAMS and TTAB. Ms. Harper's 30 year career includes serving as a Fortune 100 chief marketing officer and an adjunct marketing professor. In addition to providing litigation consulting and research in the areas of business, licensing, marketing, advertising, in-store merchandising, and strategy, Ms. Harper is routinely retained to formulate expert surveys, conduct rebuttal critiques, or construct rebuttal surveys to show the potential difference in results with properly designed and executed surveys. She has extensive experience and a deep understanding of survey design, sampling, question construction, data analysis, and the methodological pitfalls that can introduce bias or systematic error.